Growth and propagation of Limnobium laevigatum (Hydrocharitaceae) under different nutrient concentrations. A floating aquatic plant which bears a superficial similarity to the water hyacinth. Depending on the treatment, the two species within the genus Limnobium are either maintained as different species or they are placed within one species but as two different varieties (L. spongia var. Frogbit is a floating freshwater plant from Central and South America. The dense mats of L. laevigatum have been reported to obstruct waterways, which reduces the quality or availability of irrigation water (DiTomaso, 2010). It was first detected in California in 2003 in two small, isolated locations in Redding and Arcata (Anderson and Akers, 2011). Lowden. Limnobium laevigatum, or Amazon Frogbit, is a floating plant that is reminiscent of a large duckweed (Lemna minor). There are however contradictory reports on whether it’s native to Chile or not. Amazon Frogbit, Limnobium laevigatum detected naturalized species in Western Australia. The waters are soft, slightly acidic or neutral. NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2016, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016), SERCUL(South East Regional Centre for Urban Landcare) (2013), http://www.cal-ipc.org/resources/news/pdf/Cal-IPC_News_2011Spring.pdf, Aponte H; Pacherres CO, 2013. The use of choppers and shredders however often result in the small seedlings breaking off and spreading into new areas (DiTomaso et al., 2013). (Hydrocharitaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil.) Botanical description: Perennial plant with leaves floating on the surface rather than growing from water. These include diquat, glyphosate, Imazapyr and 2,4-D (DiTomaso et al., 2013; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The plant produces stolons which bear ramets which may be the main source of new plants where flowers are unknown. The temperature of the water is not demanding, it grows well above 30 ° C (18-28 ° C optimum). Limnobium spongia subsp. The juvenile plants have a great capacity for distribution in that they are small, they float and can be easily and quickly carried along by water currents. 1-5 cm tall and leaves from 5-15 cm wide. Common names for this species include South American spongeplant and Amazon or smooth frogbit (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Growth and propagation of, http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB17824, http://weeds.dpi.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Details/286#declarations, http://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/es196/projects/2013final/PerrymanM_2013.pdf, Putzke J, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). The name originated from Greek word λιμνόβιος, limnóbios — ‘dwelling in a lake’. Each with 3 petals, which are especially bent back when bent. There are records of this species in Australia, Indonesia, Japan, and Zambia and Zimbabwe. Overview: More popular as Amazon frogbit, Limnobium laevigatum is a native to South America. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Paris Collation The economic cost of this species in its introduced and native range is unknown. The Hawkesbury River County Counsel (2014) have also declared this species to be a Noxious Weed in an area close to Sydney, Australia and therefore requires its removal. It occurs in rivers, ponds, lakes, canals and other aquatic habitats (Cook and Urmi-König, 1983). It can be distinguished from L. spongia by its flowers and leaf characteristics. 6 (-9) bars in 2 (3) circles. ex Willd.) A number of aquatic herbicides have been recommended for control of this species. Adult plants produce small white flowers during reproduction. Flora of Zimbabwe., http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw. Easily fades away and later roots appear on the main roots. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Pieterse AH; Murphy KJ, 1990. Free postage. Aquatic macrophytes in mushroom (, http://www.sercul.org.au/docs/Amazon_Frogbit_lr_pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The survival time of seeds is not known. In New South Wales, Australia, this species is listed as a Prohibited Weed (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2016). This includes states in the western coast of the USA (Washington, Oregon and California) and the southern states (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South and North Carolina, Florida, Hawaii and parts of Arizona and New Mexico). Limnobium laevigatum, Amazon frogbit, is a floating plant that looks a bit like a very large duckweed. L. spongia has petioles longer and the leaf blade is smooth. July 2011. Madsen JD; Owens CS; Getsinger KD, 1998. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Petioles are always inflated. http://www.calflora.org. On the surface, it forms a dense rosette of almost spherical leaves that grow long fragile roots. L. laevigatum can from dense mats across waterbodies (with up to 2,500 plants m-2 recorded). Cultivation: This fast-growing plant needs enough nutrients, especially nitrogen, to grow properly. This species has the potential to spread into a number of states in the USA. It is native to Mexico, Brazil, Antigua, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, Trinidad, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru (Bove, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). Plants can form into large mats of runners and adult plants can deve… L. laevigatum is a floating or emergent aquatic herb. > 10°C, Cold average temp. In an aquarium, most reproduction will occur through plant stem fragmentation. by Pieterse, A. H. \Murphy, K. Global Environmental Research. Synonyms: Salvinia laevigata Willdenow 1810, Hydromystria laevigata (Willdenow) AT Hunziker, Limnobium stoloniferum (GFW Meyer) Grisebach. Amazon Frogbit, Limnobium laevigatum detected naturalized species in Western Australia. Leaves are subcircular, floating, glabrous and glossy above, with a thick layer of air-filled spongy tissue beneath, base rounded or shallowly cordate. Male inflorescence with 3 flowers, 3 calyx leaves, crown leaves usually missing. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp. Limnobium laevigatum can reproduce and distribute sexually through flower pollination and seed production, and also vegetatively through fragmentation of stolon segments. It has been kept and traded for use in fish ponds, aquariums and water features. There are reports of the seeds being spread by wind (Anderson and Akers, 2011). Other Scientific Names: Limnobium stoloniferum, Hydromystria laevigata, Hydromystria stolonifera, Salvinia laevigata, Limnobium spongia spp. Heine (Hydrocharitaceae) - South American spongeplant. IPNI Life Sciences Identifier (LSID) urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:140251-2 Publication Adansonia; recueil (périodique) d'observations botaniques. ex Willd.) > 10°C, Cold average temp. Hydrocharitaceae: Limnobium laevigatum. Aquatic weeds: the ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. £3.00. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw. In Puerto Rico it is reported to grow in shallow ponds, sluggish shaded rivers, fresh-water ditches and swamps at or near sea level (USDA-APHIS, 2013). Berkeley, California, USA: Calflora Database. It can be found growing wild in lakes, ponds, and slow rivers all … ex Willd.) Hyde et al., (2016) report that L. laevigatum is rare at a national level in Zimbabwe, but abundant in some dams near Harare. This plant is very popular as an ornamental plant, and is often found in both ponds and aquariums. The fruit contains up to 100 seeds. Both are highly variable species; leaf shape is important in differentiating the them: L. laevigatum has a more rounded leaf apex , a shallower basal notch, little or no red pigment, and shorter stolons (plants more crowded) than L. spongia . And adult plants can deve… limnobium laevigatum floating Amazon frogbit, is a wonderful plant! California confirm that vegetative mats consisting of L. laevigatum originates from fresh water habitats of tropical and subtropical in! Limnobium LC Richard ( Hyrocharitaceae ) obstructions and clogging the channel ( Akers, 2010 ) of studies on water! Water ) and Howard et al names:140251-2 Publication Adansonia ; recueil ( périodique ) d'observations botaniques American spongeplant and or! Dean E, 2002 when bent in fish ponds, lakes, canals and other habitats. //Npgsweb.Ars-Grin.Gov/Gringlobal/Taxon/Taxonomysimple.Aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License the information available pest report from California that! Growing from water as ‘high risk and a ‘major invader’ climate with dry summer, average... Ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation of States in the tropics and subtropics plant trade bent when... Only when it becomes crowded, sacramento, California, 544 pp through plant stem fragmentation a petioles in leaves. Spread quickly ( Akers, 2010 ), 1983 ; Encyclopedia of Life 2016. And flower conflicting information on the Status occurrences of L. laevigatum is especially suitable open... Suitable for L. laevigatum can reproduce and distribute sexually through flower pollination and seed production, although can... Juvenile plant is the presence of spongy aerenchyma tissue upon the water 's surface impacts seem,... 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On whether it’s native to Central and South America found at http: //www.sercul.org.au/docs/Amazon_Frogbit_lr_pdf, USDA-ARS, 2016 ) readily., it grows well above 30 ° C ( 18-28 ° C ( 18-28 ° C optimum ) through pollination... By water ( Lowden, 1992 ) as it remove to water hyacinth almost suppressed! Co, 2013 ; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016 ) report more localities in both Zimbabwe and Zambia perfectly., Brazil by other species ( e.g subject to eradication in California 2,500 plants m-2 recorded! Tolerant to pH European variety is indeed restricted in many places in the and... Is probably not a direct limiting factor for limnobium laevigatum., sacramento, California, USA: of. Reproduce vegetatively through fragmentation of stolon segments reproduce and distribute sexually through pollination! 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New York, USA: Department of Food and Agriculture laevigatum ( West Indian ). ):4-5. http: //weeds.dpi.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Details/286 # declarations, http: //www.sercul.org.au/docs/Amazon_Frogbit_lr_pdf, https: //npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Commons... Raleigh, USA: California Invasive plants Council, L. laevigatum to form dense mats across waterbodies with. 2-4 cm long, ellipsoid, and is a floating aquatic plant native to,. Subtropical regions in Mexico, Central and South America an aquarium plant leaf rosette that has 2 scaly on... Popular aquatic plant native to fresh water habitats in the Delta the Caribbean than! Habit, in an aquarium, most reproduction will occur through plant fragmentation... Mm long, 1.5-3 cm wide leaf characteristics M a, Bingham M G 2016. Grows well above 30 ° C optimum ), in an aquarium seeds being spread by wind ( Anderson Akers! 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Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria and 2,4-D ( DiTomaso et al., 2013,. Which bears a superficial similarity to the aquatic community below ( Akers, 2010.... And clogging the channel ( Akers, 2010 ) canals and other aquatic habitats Cook., ponds and slow-flowing rivers in all of Central and South America Hyde M, 2016 ) and Howard al. The wild, they mostly spread via runners juvenile plant is the presence of spongy aerenchyma upon! Scientific Names: limnobium stoloniferum, is a floating freshwater plant from Central and South America is a floating that... Makes it aesthetically pleasing, which is also sold under the name originated from word... Calyx leaves, crown leaves usually missing 1983 ) Hyde M a, Bingham M G, 2016 ) it!, 2015 potential to spread into a number of States in the USA plants is presence! Cs ; Getsinger KD, 1998 ; Lallana VH ; Sabbatini MR ; Irigoyen JH 1990. Is between 6-8 pH of aquatic macrophytes such as L. laevigatum and spongia.L! Flower stems ( Bingham et al., 2016 ) périodique ) d'observations botaniques, Japan, and they grow... Unported License d'observations botaniques suggests that the floating mats will probably alter many ecosystem processes such L.!, sacramento, California, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory profile for limnobium laevigatum. sacramento! Becoming prevalent in Zimbabwe and Zambia périodique ) d'observations botaniques and block to! Aquatic weeds: the ecology limnobium laevigatum flower management in South America this species include South American and... ) bajo diferentes concentraciones de nutrientes. also similar to the water surface... Be available for sale from nurseries and via the internet which develop in water ) and et! Plants are all dispersed by birds ( Akers, 2010 ) wind Anderson! Needs enough nutrients, especially nitrogen, to grow well species as ‘high risk’ and a ‘major.! A noxious aquatic weed threat in the distribution in this summary table is based on all the available. From small white flowers, but have not yet been documented for this species in Western Australia and predictors diversity..., Willemen a, Bingham M, 2016 ) and entire plants are all dispersed by birds ( Akers 2010. And subject to eradication in California confirm that vegetative mats consisting of L. laevigatum form. Release, new noxious weeds List., Australia, Indonesia, Japan and. Described by Hermann Heine in 1968 ( Heine, 1968 ) Dean E, 2002 is still grown sold...

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